There Will Never Be an Agile 2.0…

…for the simple reason there was never an “Agile 1.0.”

Claiming to have crafted “Agile 2.0” would be like publishing the “Declaration of Independence 2.0” or “The Laws of Thermodynamics 2.0.” The Agile Manifesto is foundational. It is a statement of first principles that underpin a mindset from which a mountain of tools, techniques, frameworks, and practices have been created.

As to methods, there may be a million and then some, but principles are few. The man who grasps principles can successfully select his own methods. The man who tries methods, ignoring principles, is sure to have trouble.Harrington Emerson

As a tool, its utility comes from providing a stable base from which we can clarify complicated problems. Much of the 2.0 stuff I’ve read adds complexity and complication to a simple set of values and principles. In this regard it reflects research that shows people are more likely to add to solutions rather than subtract.

It’s this notion of a stable base that flummoxes people seeking to assign versions to Agile. First principles are often unassuming, their beauty and brilliance is masked by their seemingly simple codification of how things best work. Neither are first principles about absolute truths. First principles can have first principles. The first principles by which I use a wood plane are different from the first principles used by the tool manufacturer when milling the steel for the blade. My first principles of use inherit and extend the manufacture’s first principles of milling steel.

The Agile Manifesto identified elements in software development that are non-reducible. To be clear, there are other first principle elements not included in the Agile Manifesto and the Agile Manifesto doesn’t apply to every conceivable context. Twenty years of experience of applying it’s four values and twelve principles to other areas of business have revealed this to be true. They are not, nor will they ever be, an absolute truth. As our understanding of why they work so well improves, so will the underlying principles. Frankly, I’m impressed they have held up this well this far into the Internet Age. And I certainly don’t expect them to withstand every challenge or be as durable as the Declaration of Independence of the Laws of Thermodynamics.

So when I read someone’s declaration of “Agile 2.0,” the first thing I want to know is if their proposal precedes the first principles established by the Agile Manifesto or are they trying to do something else. So far, it’s always been the something else. There may be some interesting thoughts related to an alternate framework or perhaps a change to common practices, but I’ve yet to see anything revolutionary or even evolutionary.

A second thing I look for: Is the author working to falsify any of the principles and have they done a good job of presenting their argument. Again, this hasn’t happened. Mostly I read a lot of complaints about wording or ambiguity or history or stuff that is little more than efforts to tag the foundation with a personal style of graffiti.

I’ve yet to see Agile’s next evolutionary phase. I hope someday I will.


Image by 은주 송 from Pixabay

The Perfect System in an Imperfect World

With apologies to Winston Churchill,

Many forms of project management have been tried, and will be tried in this world of sin and woe. No one pretends that Scrum is perfect or all-wise. Indeed, it has been said that Scrum is the worst form of project management except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time.

Agile in general, and scrum in particular, has suffered their share of hard yet deserved knocks. But many of these complaints come from people who are expecting perfection, some panacea or magic remedy to what ails their project management world. Often they want this perfection out of the box and miss the hard work needed to implement a relatively simple set of rules and guidelines while shifting from the “old ways” of getting work done.

Consider a flock of geese.

Over the course of hundreds of thousands of years they have worked out an efficient way to migrate. Not perfect, but well adapted to the world in which they live. At the heart of this behavior are several important principles: Shared responsibility, clear communication, and coordinated effort.

Consider Agile similarly. It is a perfect system for an imperfect world. The principles found in the formation of a flock of geese can be found within the Agile Manifesto. Its foundation of assuming the need for experimentation, learning, and adaptation is central to it’s enduring success. If these values are absent from or poorly represented in an organization’s culture, the chances for sustainable success using any methodology are diminished.

Photo by Josh Massey on Unsplash

That Isn’t What I Expected

Adverse surprises during a team driven project are about as welcome as whooping cough at a glassblowers convention. Minimizing the opportunity for surprises comes down to how well expectations are defined at the very beginning and how well they are managed during the course of the project. Unidentified expectations are like landmines in the project path. When they explode, it’s bad and the course of the project WILL change. Product owners can’t elucidate all the expectations a stakeholder may have, but with experience they can define the major ones. With practice and attention, experienced product owners can tease out all but the minor expectations that are often dependant on discovery within the project’s sprints.

Key to this skill is knowing the questions to ask at the beginning. In my experience, stakeholders rarely deliberately hold back their expectations. They just don’t know what they don’t know and it is the product owner’s responsibility to establish clarity around expectations. Intuitively obvious expectations rarely play out as such.

A few questions for stakeholders that I’ve found helpful:

  • What business problems do you intend to solve with this project?
  • What do you need to see to know the project is progressing?
  • What will you see when the project is done?
  • What is your availability commitment for the duration of the project?
  • How often to you expect to meet to review progress?
  • How long do YOU think it will take to complete the project?
  • To what extent are your functional groups integrated?
  • Describe your process from design to development to implementation?
  • Are there other stakeholders we need to know about and include?
  • What factors have helped and hurt success with past projects?

This is by no means an exhaustive list of questions. And they may even seem obvious. The answers, however, are almost never obvious.

I also find it effective to challenge stakeholders with scenarios.

  • What happens if we discover this project will take two months longer than expected?
  • What happens if we discover a desired solution is technically unfeasible?
  • How will you support us if we encounter significant delays from client deliverables?

Product owners need to keep pursuing clarity around expectations until they are satisfied they have a good understanding of how the people side of the project will unfold. This will go a long way to helping the development team handle the technical side of the project.

While stakeholders answer these questions, product owners need to pay attention not just the words stakeholders use, but how they answer as well. They need to be scanning for underlying assumptions that drive the answers. These often reflect relevant cultural drivers which can signal significant expectations seemingly unrelated to the project at hand.

For example, perhaps the product owner has established the expectation of a three business day turnaround for feedback from the stakeholder when asked to review periodic project deliverables. “We can complete our reviews within three business days and work to get them to you as fast as possible,” says the stakeholder somewhat hesitantly as he looks off into the distance. Where the pain begins is when the inattentive product owner discovers that, while the feedback may be ready, the client organization has a thick layer of compliance and the feedback is hung up in legal for an additional one to two weeks…every time. If the stakeholder’s responses reflect something less than 100% commitment, keep asking questions designed to surface underlying assumptions.

As each sprint concludes, and eventually the project as well, the savvy product owner knows their work with expectations isn’t complete. Retrospectives for each sprint, each release, and the project conclusion should make note of the expectations that were missed and consider questions that could have been asked that would have helped surface the surprise expectations sooner.

This is also an excellent time to consider if any of the existing expectations have changed or if it appears there may be new expectations emerging. Internal forces, such as changes in team composition, and external forces, such as shifting market demands, can significantly impact the set of expectations a product owner is tasked with managing.

If  you expected to read these kinds of things about surfacing stakeholder expectations, then you’re probably an experienced product owner.

 

Image by S K from Pixabay