Theoretical frameworks are defined more by what they do than what they are. To understand this, consider a physical framework for a house (Figure 1.) Its purpose and function is, quite literally, easy to grasp. It solves problems in the physical world and it’s easy to understand how such a framework can add value to our lives. It’s also easy to assess the limitations of a physical framework. The house framework reveals the underlying structural of beams, joists, rafters, and such. With this structure, it is easy to imagine this as an ideal solution to protecting a family from the weather. It is equally obvious that this same framework would be wholly inadequate as a sports stadium. The structure in Figure 1 adds value to the eventual solution for protecting a family from the weather, but as a solution for hosting a large sporting event it leaves much to be desired.
Staying with the physical framework for a moment, several useful rules become apparent.
- The problem defines what framework should be used. Frameworks ideally suited to solving one problem may result in disaster if applied to a different problem. A corollary could easily be that there is no single framework that can solve all physical structure problems. Rather, frameworks can be composed of a wide variety of materials and can come in all manner of shapes and sizes.
- The choice of physical frameworks defines the tools, techniques, and materials to be used during construction of the overall solution.
- Frameworks necessarily limit focus. By focusing the crew in this way the contractor can better controls quality, cost, and scope.
Similar to how a structural frame (or framework) to a house provides underlying support in the physical world, a theoretical framework provides an underlying conceptual structure in the world of ideas. Scrum and SAFe are examples of theoretical frameworks. The rules for physical frameworks apply equally well to theoretical frameworks. However, when the conversation shifts to theoretical frameworks, people often struggle with how to apply these rules. Being less tangible, it is easier to inadvertently select a theoretical framework that results in a sub-optimal solution for a particular problem. Without a clear understanding of the problem and the capabilities of a selected theoretical framework, a manager may inadvertently select a set of tools, techniques, and practices that are unsuited to the task. The framework won’t support the desired solution.
Just as with a building designer, the challenge for the leader tasked with implementing Agile is that he or she must first have a clear understanding of the problems they are trying to solve. They must also have a solid understanding of the possible Agile frameworks from which the optimal choice can be made.
As with physical frameworks, theoretical frameworks define the tools and techniques employed during the actual work effort. When the theoretical framework is appropriately matched to the business problem, leadership can more easily identify and define variables and constants, design define meaningful metrics, and make more effective decisions for reaching desired outcomes.